Isocyanates are isocyanic acid esters with the formula R — N = С = О, where R is alkyl, aryl, alkylaromatic or heterocyclic chemical group. Isocyanates are colorless or slightly colored liquids or crystalline substances. Depending on the number of NCO groups in the molecule (one, two, three or more) isocyanates fall into mono-, di-, tri- etc. isocyanates. Isocyanates show high reactivity.
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) are the isocyanates of the largest industrial significance. The main application of isocyanates is polyurethanes and certain synthetic fibers synthesis. Isocyanates enter into the composition of paints, varnishes, impregnant agents for textile materials and are also applied as vulcanizing agents in rubber mixes and concrete fillings. TDI is mainly applied in flexible polyurethane foams production. Approximately 60% of MDI is used in polyurethane foams production.
NIIK specialists have been carrying out research and design woks in the field of isocyanates production since the start of NIIK operation. Today NIIK specialists possess experience in design of various isocyanates production units: TDI, polymerous MDI, phenyl isocyanates and its chlorinated derivatives. An alternative low pressure process may be used for design of isocyanates units.
An isocyanates unit based on NIIK design may also include assemblies for certain raw and intermediate products production: toluylenediamine from dinitrobenzene, polyamine from aniline and formalin, phosgene from carbon oxide and chlorine. As a result of extensive investigation works NIIK has developed a range of products under the general name of SURIZON® including isocyanates dimers, isocyanurates and urethanes containing isocyanate groups, blocked isocyanates etc., which are used for foams, coatings, adhesives, elastomers and other polymer materials production.
Nowadays Russian isocyanate industry feels the need for creation of local production of the abovementioned products. NIIK possesses the experience in the field of such units design and specialists and design engineers understanding process unique and specific features.